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 :: Prison General References ::
General references about prisons in Richmond, VA during the Civil War.

These sources are either non-specific references to the prisons in Richmond, or important sources on the general policies of exchange and treatment of prisoners.

Richmond Dispatch 6/13/1861; four prisoners of war arrive in Richmond
Richmond Enquirer 6/15/1861; Prisoners captured at Big Bethel are quartered at the Customs House - Richmonders flock to see the captured Yankees
Richmond Dispatch 6/25/1861; names of U. S. prisoners of war now confined in Richmond
Richmond Dispatch 7/1/1861; two POWs arrive and are taken to the prison depot (Ligon's prison)
Richmond Dispatch 7/2/1861; prison depot is located two blocks from the Henrico Court House, and contains 75-100 prisoners
Richmond Dispatch 7/15/1861; description of the wild reaction in Richmond when "live Yankees" pass through the town
Richmond Dispatch 7/16/1861; POWs from Yorktown arrive, and are taken to the prison depot; some are from the "scum of Baltimore," and one a spy
Richmond Dispatch 7/18/1861; some prisoners removed from the Prison depot to parts unknown
Richmond Dispatch 7/20/1861; belief expressed that there will be a large number of prisoners arriving soon; 21 brought in yesterday
Richmond Dispatch 7/22/1861; 56 prisoners arrived yesterday and were taken to the prison depot on Main street
Richmond Dispatch 7/24/1861; 631 prisoners arrive from Manassas and are taken to the prison depot - six hundred more are expected soon
Richmond Dispatch 7/25/1861; trains arrive from Manassas bearing wounded, who are taken to private homes for treatment; 500-600 POWs are set to arrive; the prison depot is already full; notes that General Corcoran arrived in Richmond two days ago
Richmond Dispatch 7/25/1861; wounded POWs of Ellsworth's Zouaves are taken to the Alms House for treatment - expresses belief that these men are a very "hard set," and "villains of a low degree," and don't deserve any kindness
Richmond Whig 7/25/1861; wounded soldiers and Yankee prisoners are arriving in Richmond
Richmond Dispatch 7/26/1861; 17 Union surgeons are POWs; one is the son of a big New York tobacco merchant and is in Howard's factory
Richmond Whig 7/26/1861; "Prison depot," at corner of Main and 25th street is being visited by curious Richmonders
Richmond Enquirer 7/30/1861; City Alms House Hospital (Gen. Hos. #1) described. Used as a prison at this time.
Richmond Dispatch 7/31/1861; 78 wounded POWs brought to Richmond, including a Richmonder in exile
Richmond Whig 7/31/1861; prisoner shot at for talking out the windows of his prison
Richmond Dispatch 8/1/1861; two POWs arrive - one a spy
Richmond Dispatch 8/2/1861; 70 wounded POWs brought to Richmond
Richmond Dispatch 8/2/1861; hospital established for prisoners at Ross' Factory
Richmond Dispatch 8/3/1861; the number of wounded POWs is now near 500 and more arriving; medicines will be needed
Richmond Dispatch 8/5/1861; 74 new Yankee POWs arrive - housed at prison in Jefferson Ward
Richmond Whig 8/5/1861; description of the "prison depot," particularly Harwood's factory, and recommendations for treatment of prisoners
Richmond Dispatch 8/6/1861; 17 Yankee POWs have died in Richmond so far
Richmond Whig 8/5/1861; description of the "prison depot," particularly Harwood's factory, and recommendations for treatment of prisoners
Richmond Dispatch 8/9/1861; notes on high POW mortality
Richmond Dispatch 8/9/1861; 11 Yankee POWs arrive
Richmond Whig 8/10/1861; appeal for the Alms House to be occupied by Confederate wounded, and the Yankees moved out. Praises the hospital as a "large and airy building"
Richmond Dispatch 8/12/1861; letter from POW of 69th NY, at Alms House Hospital
Richmond Whig 8/14/1861; recommendation that negroes be employed as hospital assistants and that Yankees be moved out of the Alms House
Richmond Dispatch 8/15/1861; Yankee POW escapes from Harwood's Factory, but recaptured - details on capture by Henrico minister
Richmond Dispatch 8/15/1861; a dozen Manassas POWs arrive, and taken to the prison on Main Street
Richmond Dispatch 8/15/1861; notes on individual prisoners recently arrived from Norfolk
Richmond Whig 8/17/1861; reiteration of appeal to move Yankees out of Alms House
Richmond Dispatch 8/22/1861; 2 POWs recaptured after escaping from Main St. prison
Richmond Dispatch 8/22/1861; short extract from letter of Yankee POW, describing prison building
Richmond Dispatch 8/26/1861; member of CS guard at Ligon's factory shoots his officer
Richmond Dispatch 8/27/1861; 21 new POWs arrive
Richmond Dispatch 8/30/1861; 13 POWs arrive
Richmond Whig 9/3/1861; great description of the Richmond prisons and some of the prisoners; notes that there are 1725 prisoners in Richmond
Richmond Enquirer 9/6/1861; Yankees attempt to escape from prison, shot by sentries on Libby Hill.
Richmond Dispatch 9/6/1861; Yankee surgeon, tending to prisoners, has made his escape
Richmond Whig 9/16/1861; four Yankee prisoners escape from prison depot, two are shot and the others are recaptured
Richmond Enquirer 9/17/1861; General Winder will move his headquarters to the corner of 9th and Broad streets
Richmond Enquirer 9/18/1861; notes on Yankee prisoners and the cost of keeping them in Richmond
Richmond Enquirer 9/19/1861; six Yankees have escaped from prison
Richmond Enquirer 9/21/1861; Yankee surgeons in Richmond to be paroled
Richmond Enquirer 9/23/1861; 13 Yankee prisoners from Cheat Mountain (including a member of McClellan's staff) brought to town
Richmond Enquirer 9/23/1861; notes on Union surgeons released on parole
Richmond Enquirer 9/23/1861; Yankee prisoner in the "lower prison, near Rocketts" shot and killed for verbally abusing a sentinel. Sentinel praised for doing his duty. Prisoner buried at Shockoe Cemetery
Richmond Enquirer 9/24/1861; Yankee prisoner shot by a sentinel; buried at Shockoe
Richmond Examiner 9/26/1861; 50 patients in Main Street Hospital (Ross' Factory)
Richmond Dispatch 10/2/1861; excellent account of the arrival in Richmond of federal prisoners and their route through the city to Mayo's factory prison
Richmond Enquirer 10/4/1861; Three Yankees escaped from prison (non-specific)
Richmond Enquirer 10/4/1861; Gen. Winder wants a company of 100 men, unfit for field service, to perform duty in the city of Richmond
Richmond Examiner 10/4/1861; Yankee prisoners, kept at General Hospital #1, to be exchanged
Richmond Examiner 10/4/1861; Yankee prisoner escapes from Ross' Factory
Richmond Dispatch 10/5/1861; details on four Yankee prisoners brought to the city
Richmond Enquirer 10/5/1861; statistics and praise of the “Confederate States Prison Hospital, at Rocketts.” Notes 41 deaths have occurred, and praises Dr. E. G. Higginbotham at length. 
Richmond Enquirer 10/5/1861; Gen. Winder adv for 100 men to serve in a company “to perform duty in the city.”
Richmond Dispatch 10/7/1861; flag of truce boat carries away 57 POWs - Charles Bell Gibson and St. George Peachy accompany the departing prisoners
Richmond Examiner 10/7/1861; Hon. Alfred Ely (US Congressman) presented with a mock sword in prison
Richmond Dispatch 10/8/1862; Mr. Wood, keeper of Old Capitol Prison in Washington, arrives in Richmond to negotiate for prisoners; 243 “political or civil” prisoners now in Libby
Richmond Examiner 10/11/1861; 40 Federal prisoners being treated at GH#1; details about Mrs. Ricketts coming to Richmond to nurse her wounded husband
Richmond Dispatch 10/16/1861; 36 WIA prisoners transferred from Alms House to prison. Authorities hope to use Alms House for CSA only
Richmond Examiner 10/16/1861; Federal prisoners removed from GH#1 and moved to prison on Main st.
Richmond Dispatch 10/21/1861; arrival of more federal prisoners; there are now 1,189 prisoners in Richmond
Richmond Dispatch 10/24/1861; details on the anxiety at the Central depot over the non-arrival of prisoners; too many prisoners in town; Plans afoot to convert a tobacco factory on 25th into a prison
Richmond Dispatch 10/25/1861; Enormous description of arrival of POWs at VA Central depot. Sent to Mayo's Factory, corner 25th and Cary. Much on 18th & 19th GA as guards. Wm. Harris, future author, is among the prisoners
Richmond Dispatch 10/25/1861; Good paragraph on 18th GA, camped at Bloody Run, Guarding POWs
Richmond Dispatch 10/28/1861; Taylor's Factory has been taken as a prison
Richmond Dispatch 10/28/1861; description of Richmond's attitude toward U. S. prisoners
Richmond Dispatch 11/4/1861; Yankee prisoners, taken to Chimborazo, make their escape
Richmond Dispatch 11/4/1861; 2,685 prisoners have come to Richmond so far; those who remain number 1,714
Richmond Dispatch 11/4/1861; Soldiers guarding prisons are building fires in streets to keep warm
Richmond Examiner 11/4/1861; Two Yankee prisoners, permitted leave in the city, attempt to escape, but are re-captured
Richmond Dispatch 11/6/1861; Capt. Gibbs in command of the military prisons in Richmond
Richmond Dispatch 11/12/1861; statistics of burials in Shockoe cemetery during the last quarter, including 97 Union POWs
Richmond Enquirer 11/12/1861; 247 dead POWs interred in Shockoe Hill burial ground
Richmond Enquirer 11/18/1861; great description of the prison system in Richmond with list of employees (included Wirz and Higginbotham). Notes that over 2000 POWs now in Richmond
Richmond Dispatch 11/21/1861; 2 CS soldier guards in trouble for shooting at POWs – one fatality, the other a miss. Names given, prison not ID'ed
Richmond Enquirer 11/21/1861; sentinel at unnamed prison charged and acquitted of shooting at the prisoners
Richmond Enquirer 11/21/1861; sentinel at "Confederate Prison No. 2" accidentally shot two prisoners, one mortally. Mentions that he was on a hill behind the prison when his musket accidentally discharged. Mayor finds that the incident was an accident
Richmond Enquirer 11/25/1861; More POWs arrive at Richmond.
Richmond Enquirer 11/25/1861; 3 POWs died in prison.
Richmond Dispatch 11/29/1862; 245 Federal soldiers to be paroled at City Point today – officers named, including Col. Thos. J. Jordan, 9th PA, who for some time was in Castle Thunder
Richmond Dispatch 11/30/1861; 31 POWs arrive – now a total of 1483 in town – names 4 POWs who died 11/29
Richmond Dispatch 12/5/1861; Dr. Higginbotham given a hand-made pipe by a grateful POW patient
Richmond Enquirer 12/10/1861; list of clothing for Massachusetts prisoners
Richmond Enquirer 12/10/1861; "Negro Prisoners of War"
Richmond Enquirer 12/10/1861; List of deceased Prisoners of War
Richmond Enquirer 12/10/1861; 3 officers and one VMI cadet are ordered from the Camp of Instruction to duty in the prisons (includes T. P. Turner and Geo. Emack)
Richmond Dispatch 12/18/1861; Notes on prisoners of war - notes that Capt. Ricketts and his wife will be released today
Richmond Enquirer 12/18/1861; Capt. Ricketts and his wife are to be sent North - notes that while in Richmond they were visited by Pres. Davis and others
New York Herald 12/23/1861; non-specific description of harsh treatment of Union POWs in Richmond; notes that Tredegar has produced a submarine to operate against the blockade
Richmond Dispatch 12/27/1861; Slave of T. & S. Hardgrove punished for providing whiskey to POWs
Richmond Dispatch 12/30/1861; update on Yankee POWs - much cheerfulness among the prisoners
Richmond Dispatch 1/2/1862; 240 prisoners of war to be exchanged; 2 POWs from the 23rd PA arrive
Richmond Dispatch

1/3/1862; Short list of prominent POWs being sent North

New York Herald 1/6/1862; notes on returned Yankee POWs and the treatment they received in Richmond - notes Dr. Higginbotham for his beneficence and a "Swiss sergeant" [probably Wirz] who is very cruel
Richmond Whig 1/6/1862; Mr. John Francisco has been appointed clerk of Confederate prisons in Richmond. Also, last Friday 239 prisoners were exchanged
Richmond Dispatch 1/7/1862; Alfred Ely’s lengthy account of time in Richmond.
Richmond Dispatch

1/9/1862; 160 POWs to be sent North

Richmond Dispatch 1/15/1862; two Yankees escape from prison
Richmond Dispatch 1/17/1862; 160 POWs to leave Richmond
Richmond Dispatch 1/18/1862; 148 prisoners leave for exchange
Richmond Dispatch 1/23/1862; 4 POWs arrive on the Richmond and Danville Railroad
Richmond Dispatch 1/24/1862; 3 POWs arrive escorted by Capt. Griffin, 6th Ga., and are lodged in "the military prison"
Richmond Dispatch 1/27/1862; 5 Yankee POWs (named) leaving for exchange
Richmond Dispatch 1/30/1862; Salisbury Prison ready to take 700 POWs now in Richmond
Richmond Whig 1/30/1862; Yankee prisoners on one side of Main street are selling carved bones to Confederate prisoners on the other.
Richmond Dispatch 2/3/1862; Lt. J. L. S. Kirby, CSA, on duty at prisons in Richmond, ordered to Salisbury to report to Gibbs
Richmond Dispatch 2/6/1862; Yankee POW arrives - a German
Richmond Dispatch 2/10/1862; 370 local POWs due to be exchanged
Richmond Dispatch 2/13/1862; naval captain brought to Richmond prison as a spy
Richmond Whig 3/3/1862; Jefferson Davis' proclamation that Richmond is under martial law and forced prohibition; Gen. John H. Winder will enforce this proclamation; Capt. A. C. Godwin is appointed Provost Marshal of Richmond. All private firearms must be turned in
Richmond Enquirer 3/6/1862; Due to recent Unionist mischief, all Union prisoners (500 in number) are denied access to anyone or anything from the outside
Richmond Enquirer 3/6/1862; 21 prisoners now at Castle Godwin; general discussion of suitable buildings for prisons
Richmond Dispatch 3/20/1862; 31 new prisoners installed in warehouses on Main st., 12 of them CSA soldiers
Richmond Dispatch 3/22/1862; 77 Unionists from Loudon County incarcerated in “military prison on Main street.”
Richmond Dispatch 4/9/1862; 22 more Yankee POWs arrive, 724 prisoners total - # by category
Richmond Dispatch 4/22/1862; 14 Yankee POWs arrive via the VCRR
Richmond Dispatch 4/24/1862; Lt. R. M. Booker has become one of the Assistant Provost Marshals of the city – he had previously been one of the officers in charge of the C.S. Military Prison on Main street
Richmond Enquirer 5/9/1862; 319 prisoners arrive from Williamsburg - 300 more on the way. All were put in the Libby Prison
Richmond Enquirer 5/10/1862; notes on the Federal officers among the Williamsburg prisoners
Richmond Dispatch 5/12/1862; T. P. Turner and Jackson Warner escort 860 Yankee POWs to Newport News. No officers included.
Richmond Enquirer 5/12/1862; nearly 1200 prisoners are now in Richmond - 860 privates paroled and sent off, under charge of Major Warner and Lt. Turner
Richmond Dispatch 5/13/1862; More than 800 POWs sent away for exchange
Richmond Enquirer 5/13/1862; 913 Yankee POWs in the city
Richmond Dispatch 5/15/1862; officers from Libby Prison & “fifty of the hardest subjects” from Castle Godwin to go to Salisbury
Richmond Dispatch 5/22/1862; Warner Lewis, ADC to J. H. Winder, raising company for garrison, guard & prison duty
Richmond Enquirer 5/27/1862; soldier escapes from the "Confederate Guard House, on Franklin street" and promptly recaptured - he broke his ankle in the escape
Richmond Enquirer 5/28/1862; brief description of fighting at Hanover Court House. 56 prisoners brought to Richmond.
Richmond Dispatch 6/4/1862; 560 POWs sent away on 6/3
Richmond Dispatch 6/6/1862; 139 wounded POWs at CS Hospital Cary St. Many others at Seabrook’s
Richmond Whig

6/10/1862; notice from Griswold that all detectives will carry certificates of identification

Richmond Dispatch 6/17/1862; paragraph on G. W. Alexander, now AAG to Winder by late promotion
Richmond Dispatch 6/21/1862; G.O. #1, Prison Series, from Winder: W. S. Winder, AAG, in charge of prison corresp. Capt. Henry Wirtz in charge of new district covering Manchester & Bridges
Richmond Dispatch 6/23/1862; Henry Wirtz’s office is in Manchester
Richmond Dispatch 6/30/1862; Long list of POWs arriving in town, all officers, about 75 names
Richmond Dispatch 7/1/1862; any more Yankees brought to the city will be housed in Warwick and Barksdale's mills (Gallego Mills)
Richmond Dispatch 7/1/1862; C. S. Cavalry escorting POWS on 6/29 brings 3 flags: U.S., N. J. State flag, & Massachusetts regimental flag. Deposited in War Office.
Richmond Dispatch 7/2/1862; nearly 1000 POWs arrived on 7/1. Some officers named. McCall at Spotswood – paroled to stay in city. He will be moved to “the quarters now being prepared on 18th street” when they are ready for “all the abolition officers”
Richmond Examiner 7/2/1862; list of prisons in use at Richmond, including Libby and others
Richmond Dispatch

7/3/1862; more than 4000 POWs in town – names of a few recent prisoners

Richmond Examiner 7/5/1862; new prisons needed; Warwick's mill is being prepared
Richmond Examiner 7/7/1862; Camp Lee is being considered for use as a prison
Richmond Dispatch 7/8/1862; Lt. Trabue, ex-Richmond Howitzers, now “General Superintendent” of prisons. Ordered to “see that the guard do their duty.” Trabue had previously been an artillery instructor at Camp Lee
Richmond Enquirer 7/14/1862; notes that the prison on Franklin street (probably Grant's Factory) is near a candle factory, and that both of these things are poorly placed within a residential neighborhood - argues that prisons should be in a less populated areas
Richmond Whig 7/16/1862; description of Gen. Winder’s office and the business of his duties
Pittsburgh Gazette 7/17/1862; description of the capture of Gen. McCall – notes that he is being quartered at the Spotswood Hotel in Richmond
Richmond Enquirer 7/19/1862; mortality among wounded prisoners is very great - 20 died at the York River RR depot
Richmond Dispatch 7/21/1862; 500 WIA/POWs to be sent off on 7/19, but insufficient transportation for all to go
Pittsburgh Gazette 7/21/1862; list of western Pennsylvania prisoners in "Hope Prison" in Richmond
Richmond Dispatch 7/22/1862; 500 POWs expected to be sent North on 7/22
Richmond Dispatch 7/22/1862; Fake provost officer murders a man - paragraph within testimony from Lt. Booker describing Provost Procedure for arrests
Richmond Dispatch 7/25/1862; scathing editorial on poor quality of guards at city prisons – Castle Godwin mentioned specifically
New York Herald 7/28/1862; wonderful general description of the city of Richmond - mentions, Hollywood, Tredegar, the Almshouse, appearance of the prisons, Odd Fellows Hall, and the James River and Kanawha Canal
Richmond Dispatch 7/28/1862; 1100 WIA POWs sent away over the weekend. 300 more arrive from Savage’s. Talbott & Bonn’s Factory, 18th Street, still has officers. Other factory prisons now empty. Libby will soon be empty
Richmond Dispatch 7/30/1862; 800 Yankees to be sent away on 7/31
Richmond Dispatch 8/1/1862; Martin Hogan, deserter, to be shot 8/5. He is in a Richmond prison now.
Charleston Mercury 8/2/1862;  "War Gossip" mentions criticism of the Dix-Hill Prisoner Cartel, the condemnation of Gen. Butler, South Carolinians at Camp Lee, and describes the newly formed Belle Isle Prison - notes that there are 4600 POWs there
Richmond Dispatch 8/6/1862; 3,000 Belle Isle prisoners have been exchanged; no officers this time; says there are 1,700 prisoners left
Richmond Dispatch 8/6/1862; 2,500 Lynchburg prisoners and 600 Salisbury prisoners will be brought to Richmond for exchange, including Col. O. B. Wilcox, ad Col. Michael Corcoran 
Richmond Enquirer 8/8/1862; escaped federal officers have been recaptured and put in Greanor prison
Richmond Enquirer 8/8/1862; prisons will soon be empty due to exchanges
Richmond Dispatch 8/9/1862; Federal officers now in Richmond will be exchanged soon, including Col. Corcoran (being transported from Lynchburg)
Richmond Dispatch 8/9/1862; prisoners from Lynchburg are arriving in Richmond, preparatory to exchange
Richmond Dispatch 8/11/1862; 2500 Yankees have arrived from Lynchburg, and are awaiting exchange on Belle Isle
Richmond Dispatch 8/12/1862; 140 Federal officers, including McCall, Reynolds, and Rankin have been sent off by flag of truce
Richmond Dispatch 8/12/1862; prisoners from Pope's army, including General Prince,  have arrived at Libby Prison. They are not to be treated as prisoners of war
Richmond Dispatch 8/13/1862; Description of the exchange of 140 officers, including Reynolds, McCall & Rankin
Richmond Dispatch 8/14/1862; Salisbury prisoners, including Col. Corcoran and Wilcox are arriving, and the citizen prisoners have been moved to Libby from Belle Isle to accommodate them
Richmond Dispatch 8/15/1862; description of a military prison (provost prison similar in purpose to Castle Thunder) in Manchester
Richmond Dispatch 8/16/1862; Corcoran, Willcox & others exchanged 8/15
Richmond Dispatch 8/18/1862; details on the recent exchange of Union officers at Varina. Some of the officers named. Lt. T. P. Turner in charge.
Richmond Dispatch 8/21/1862; Mayo factory on 19th between Main and Franklin
Richmond Dispatch 8/29/1862; 332 POWs arrive
Richmond Dispatch 9/1/1862; 60 POWs arrive at Central depot
Richmond Dispatch 9/3/1862; 200 exchanged Confederates arrive on 9/2, including N. R. Fitzhugh & Belle Boyd
Richmond Dispatch 9/3/1862; 8 Yankee POWs arrive. No officers. 2,000 more soon to arrive.
Richmond Dispatch 9/3/1862; 2000 Yankees expected to go to Varina on 9/5
Richmond Dispatch 9/5/1862; 2500 Belle Isle POWs to be sent to Varina today
Richmond Dispatch 9/12/1862; General Winder orders more detailed descriptive lists of prisoners
Richmond Enquirer 9/12/1862; a "considerable traffic" is going on with federal prisoners for United States currency
Richmond Dispatch 9/13/1862; All 5912 Yankee POWs to be exchanged soon. About 3000 to leave today
Richmond Dispatch 9/18/1862; 250 of 600 Yankees in Richmond to be sent away on exchange today. Officers listed
Richmond Dispatch 9/20/1862; 40 POWs arrive
Richmond Dispatch 9/25/1862; 150 POWs sent to Aiken’s Landing on 9/24
Richmond Dispatch 9/27/1862; 150 POWs to be sent to Aiken’s Landing, probably today. 500 more POWs to arrive soon from Gordonsville, and if they arrive in time, may be exchanged
Richmond Dispatch 9/29/1862; among next batch of northbound prisoners will be A. McMillen & John May, ex-Castle Godwin men now in Castle Thunder. Also Yankee females
Richmond Dispatch 9/30/1862; 500 Yankees to go to Varina this week, including many from the Libby Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 10/4/1862; office of Provost Marshal of Manchester abolished
Richmond Dispatch 10/20/1862; 630 POWs sent away 10/19 by flag of truce
Richmond Dispatch 10/21/1862; 30 disloyal Tennesseans lodged at Libby – sent to Varina yesterday
Richmond Dispatch 10/30/1862; All of Griswold’s detectives fired by Winder. Griswold’s office at corner 9th & Broad. Booker still Asst. Provost Marshal, western district.
Richmond Dispatch 10/31/1862; more on Winder’s dismissal of Griswold’s detectives
Richmond Dispatch 10/31/1862; 85 POWs sent from Libby to Varina, 10/30
Richmond Dispatch 11/7/1862; 2 paragraphs on Winder’s re-organization of city provost & police force. Names some of the officer.
Richmond Dispatch 11/7/1862; 120 Federals to be sent off for exchange today
Richmond Dispatch 11/10/1862; 300 left in Libby after Lt. V. Bossieux escorts 150 to Varina.
Richmond Dispatch 11/11/1862; POW exchange point now switched
Richmond Dispatch 11/21/1862; Ould & Ludlow agree that all future exchanges to be at City Point. 520 Yankees to leave for there this day
Richmond Dispatch 11/22/1862; Lt. Bossieux to escort 500 POWs to City Point today
Richmond Dispatch 11/24/1862; Lt. Bossieux left on 11/22 with 417 prisoners for City Point
Richmond Dispatch 11/25/1862; 17 POWs arrive
Richmond Dispatch 12/1/1862; more than 300 sent to City Point 11/30, leaving around 450 in town
Richmond Dispatch 12/2/1862; list of officer POWs received lately. 104 POWs arrived 11/30 & 71 more on Dec. 1st
Richmond Dispatch 12/12/1862; flag of truce exchange expected soon, to include 3 women spies (named) now at Castle Thunder.
Richmond Examiner 4/6/1863; the Richmond City Battalion (25th Bn VA Inf) is understood to be leaving the city for active service due to unsavory types infesting its ranks
Richmond Examiner 4/8/1863; many prisoners have arrived at Libby Prison; a flag of truce exchanged prisoners yesterday
Richmond Dispatch 5/5/1863; 550 Yankee prisoners (including 2 generals) will be exchanged today from Libby Prison
Richmond Dispatch 5/6/1863; more prisoners have arrived at Libby Prison; 219 officers and 303 men were exchanged yesterday
Richmond Dispatch 5/13/1863; editorial description of opinion regarding Yankee prisoners (very negative)
Richmond Dispatch 5/14/1863; over 7,000 prisoners from Libby Prison and Belle Isle have been exchanged
Richmond Dispatch 5/14/1863; Capt. Jos. Griswold, Provost Marshal of Richmond resigns, and is replaced by Capt. James Brown
Richmond Sentinel 7/30/1863; more Union officers arrive - 512 POW officers are now in Richmond
Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War 1863; prisoner's account of harsh treatment in Richmond. Notes that while at the General Hospital (GH#1) he was well-treated; at the tobacco warehouse he was not. Also notes that "a lady named Van Lew" helped provide for him while in prison until she was stopped by prison authorities
Richmond Sentinel 11/28/1863; 16,411 prisoners in Richmond and Belle Isle. 952 of the number are officers.
RG 109, Ch. 6, Vol. 7, no page 12/4/1863; "Hospitals for prisoners of war are placed on the same footing as other C. S. hospitals in all respects, and will be managed accordingly"
VHS 1/30/1864 1/30/1864; letter from the surgeon at the Small Pox Hospital stating that a "large number" of prisoners of war there desire to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy
Richmond Enquirer 2/19/1864; "The Feeding of the Prisoners" testimony from the butcher who supplied Chimborazo Hospital and Gen. Winder (for prisoners) with meat - shoots down the idea that the prisoners are inadequately supplied, while noting that they may not have gotten the best beef
Richmond Whig 3/3/1864; Major Elias Griswold has been relieved as Provost Marshal of Richmond, and sent to Americus, Ga. Major I. Carrington succeeds him
Richmond Sentinel 3/4/1864; 600 prisoners from Libby Prison have been shipped off to Americus, GA (Andersonville)
Richmond Sentinel 3/8/1864; a number of Yankee prisoners have recently been exchanged
Richmond Sentinel 3/9/1864; One of Gen. Winder's detectives (Cashmeyer) has been arrested while passing letters to a Yankee prisoner on a flag of truce boat
Richmond Whig 3/23/1864; only 1800 prisoners left in Richmond, the 12,000 who were here recently have been sent south or exchanged. Encourages the government not to allow such an accumulation of prisoners again
Richmond Whig 3/31/1864; City Battalion (25th Battn. Va. Inf.) have been sent to Chaffin's Farm. Now the 28th Va. Battn. does the guard duty
Richmond Whig 4/5/1864; Mr. Thomas W. Doswell has been appointed Asst. Provost Marshal, succeeding G. W. Alexander
Richmond Whig 6/2/1864; tobacco factories on Main and Franklin near Church Hill have been re-occupied as prisons, and the guards are forcing people off the sidewalk. Major Turner puts a stop to this practice
Richmond Examiner 6/4/1864; 800 Yankee wounded are in Richmond
Charleston Mercury 9/20/1864; editorial notation describing the utilization of prisoners from Libby as laborers - questions whether this can be expanded (copied from the Richmond Examiner)
Franklin (PA) Repository 2/22/1865; announcement of the death of Gen. John H. Winder
DeForest (81st NY), Random Sketches... 1866 memoir describing conditions in the early Richmond prisons, Libby and Belle Isle
National Tribune 8/20/1891; good account of life in Richmond prisons in 1861
New England Magazine 4/1895; good description of life in Prison No. 1 (Ligon's Prison) during 1861. Comments on Henry Wirz as an employee there.

Page last updated on 07/17/2008